Lobbying & Advocacy
Home Contents Introduction Opening Remarks Objectives Introduction to NPMS CSOs/Govt Partnership Poverty Assesment Day One Recap Research Methodologies Monitoring Technique Cross-cutting isssues S E Database Role of CSOs in PRSP Lobbying & Advocacy Monitoring Strategy Lesson Learned Closing Remarks

 

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Presentation on Lobbying and Advocacy Techniques       

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Defining Advocacy

Mr. Emmanuel Kallonga of Haki Kazi Catalyst started the presentation by defining the concept of advocacy. Advocacy involves activities that lead to:

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Highlighting and solving problems by putting them on the agenda, recommending solutions and building support for action on both the problems and solutions.

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Influencing the public interest through organized, systematic and intentional action to influence a particular process or/on matters of public interest.

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Influencing government policy by way of actions aimed at changing the policies, positions and programmes of the government and other institutions.

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Promoting democracy by enhancing social changes so as to influence and affect policies, attitudes, social and power relationships.

In short, lobbying and advocacy is a process of influencing what other people feel, think and believe so that changes can happen the way the influencers want them to happen. For successful lobbying and advocacy practice it is important:

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involve the people

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have a reactive agenda designed

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advance/promote pro-active agenda

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have careful planning

In this respect, it was pointed out that an effective advocacy programme must have the strength of answering some of these key questions.

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What do you want to change?

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How can change come about?

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Who can you help to bring about the desired change?

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What methods would you use?

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Who will do what and when?

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How effective is your strategy?

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Where do you need to adapt?

 

Two main Approaches of Advocacy

  1. Abolitionalist (radical/revolutionary) approach
    This is a more radical and a revolutionary approach. It targets the political level. It attempts to influence high level process and structures and patterns of thinking. It involves mass interest groups and requires a broader base of support to achieve the wanted changes e.g. the Jubilee 2000 debt campaign. Abolitionist advocacy campaigns are likely to be critical of the way things are normally done and therefore tend to be confrontational and often opposed to established powers.

  2. Reformist (evolutionary, gradual, constructive engagement) approach
    This is an evolutional, gradual and constructive engagement approach that targets particular people who are open to change. It tries to influence specific programmes or projects normally at the local and district levels. It needs a high level of technical knowledge based on experience in order for the presented views to be taken seriously.

Since the reformist approach targets at particular people or groups which are in key decision making positions, time is required to build relationship with them as individuals rather than relating with institutions. In this respect, it is important to define your primary target people. The following questions may help you to determine your target groups.

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Find out the key individual (by name) of the institution/organization.

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Clearly determine what you need to know or achieve from the identified person.

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Determine what you have learned from past experience that did not work?

As far as advocacy is concerned, institutions like the Ministry of Education does not exist. What exist, and should be targeted are key individuals by name and position e.g. Hon. Joseph Mungai (Minister), Mrs. Mwamtumu Malale (Permanent Secretary) etc.

 

Principles of Effects of Advocacy

Effective advocacy work should lead to influence the thinking and actions of the key targeted audience. If you will focus your advocacy to target a particular audience, then it is useful to divide your audience into the following groups:

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Stakeholders - individuals and groups who do, or will have an interest in what you advocate/want to change.

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Decision makers - key individuals that will bring about the change you want to achieve

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Influencers - people who can influence decision makers. Influencers can act on your behalf or against you

 

Planning Advocacy Activities

Planning for an advocacy activity takes place on similar lines as used in project planning and follows the project development and management cycles as follows:

1.    Analyse the situation

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Analysing the policy environment

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Analysing the audience

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Analysis of your organisation's comparative advantage (SWOT analysis) of doing advocacy work around a certain theme. Have you got the capacity?

2.    Decide what needs to be done

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This should be done in a participatory way

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Set your goals and objectives

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Identify and analyse your target audience

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Define your messages

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Identify appropriate channels media

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Build alliances

3.    Make a plan

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Prepare a workable timeline

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Make a sequenced list of activities

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Decide who will do what, when and at what cost

4.    Carry out the plan

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This involves implementation of the planned activities

5.    Monitoring

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Putting in place a system of checkpoints in your plan to measure changes and overall performance and impact

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Making the necessary adjustment in the process of implementation.

6.    Evaluation

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Advocacy work, like any other intervention needs a thorough analysis of the implementation process to assess success or failures and areas which are more or less effective and useful.

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Make sure you learn from past experience so that you do it better next time.

 

Advocacy Monitoring Indicators

In planning advocacy activities it is important to have measurable indicators. Indicators can be developed if you have SMART objectives. SMART means Specific, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound. These indicators may include:

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Input indicators - resources used

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Output indicators - results of the activities

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Outcome indicators - impact you expect to achieve

 

Advocacy Tools

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Advocacy tools include Media, meetings, workshops, personal face to face visits, video, written correspondence, electronic communication, use of influential persons and so forth.

Participants did a group exercise by identifying the people they want to lobby (stakeholders, decision makers and influencers). They were told to identify the key people by NAME, so that they can start building a relationship with them for effective advocacy work. The advocacy messages that were developed in the small group exercise include:

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Remove all taxes from agricultural inputs

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Increase the number of qualified teachers

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Drop cost-sharing from health services provision

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Water for domestic consumption

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Democratise processes of making decisions on natural resources conservation

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Increase women participation through decision making

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Orphans rights to social services

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Advocate more resources to district based HIV/AIDS programmes

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Promote SACCOs in the communities

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Increase the price of cotton

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Enhance active participation of the people in planning and issuance of budget guidelines

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Actively involve CSOs in district development

 

4.1 Plenary Discussions

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CSO lobbying and advocacy planners should take into consideration the basics of advocacy.

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When planning advocacy activities, the experience and knowledge of the subject and policy environment around which advocacy activity is being undertaken is crucial.

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It is also important to make a mapping exercise of key actors who have a bearing in influencing policies.

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It is very crucial to have influential people in place.

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It is important to build knowledge and ideas for lobbying and advocacy

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Information and data generated must be disseminated so that people are aware what is going-on and keep in touch and informed with relevant authorities.

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Relevant messages much be developed for further lobbying and advocacy

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Lobbying and advocacy must be constructive. If it is to succeed we should avoid embarrassing the concernees, otherwise you loose the motion and mission. Sometimes the abolitionist (extreme activism) advocacy is not taken seriously by policy makers.

 

4.2 Recommendations

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Every member of TCDD must have the full knowledge and skills on lobbying and advocacy

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TCDD must ensure training programmes are organized on lobbying and advocacy for its members to enable them to be effective.

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Lobbying and advocacy should take place systematically and simultaneously at all levels-national, regional, district and local/community level.

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There should be in place a common system and framework for lobbying and advocacy among TCDD members.

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There is need for increased effort to focus our lobbying and advocacy activities at the local government level, especially the district councils.

 

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