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Advocacy Basics

This section provides links to an assortment of materials to help build the capacity of Civil Society Organisations

The Tanzanian Advocacy Partnership Program

The Tanzanian Advocacy Partnership Program (TAPP) implemented by Pact-Tanzania from November 2001 to September 2005 was designed to strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations (CSOs) to articulate and represent public interests to the government of Tanzania on selected health, environment, and private-sector policy issues, while fostering an enabling environment for CSO-government partnerships. This video highlights the work of 4 TAPP partners: Jipeni Moyo Women and Community Organization (JIMOWACO), HakiKazi Catalyst, Youth Cultural and Information Centre (YCIC) and SHAVITA.

Note: Hakikazi Catalyst appears at the end of part 1 and the beginning of part 2

Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woNhD8a61h0
Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_ydhfxWiI8
Part 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d94idq4sIKA
part 4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KqJkcVACUIo

Emmanuel Kallonga - DEMOCRATIC POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION: Encouraging Participation Through Policy Dialogue/Discussion [Hakikazi Catalyst].

"If promoted properly, policy dialogue can become an enabling means that ensures CHOICE and VOICE, particularly for poor people, are included in policy making processes."

Now available through docstoc and also from this website ... more

Toolkits recommended by CIVICUS


The Science of Scientific Writing

A classic 1990 paper by George D. Gopen, and Judith A. Swan

If the reader is to grasp what the writer means, the writer must understand what the reader needs

Science is often hard to read. Most people assume that its difficulties are born out of necessity, out of the extreme complexity of scientific concepts, data and analysis. We argue here that complexity of thought need not lead to impenetrability of expression; we demonstrate a number of rhetorical principles that can produce clarity in communication without oversimplifying scientific issues. The results are substantive, not merely cosmetic: Improving the quality of writing actually improves the quality of thought.


African Forum and Network on Debt and Development

Afrodad is a civil society organisation born of a desire to secure lasting solutions to Africa's mounting debt problem which has impacted negatively on the continent's development process. Publications page - several papers on Tanzania


Everybody Wins - an exploration of conflict resolution

A set of 17 one-page handouts to inform discussion
First used as part of a training programme for education advisors in Lesotho


Management methods, models and theories

This website contains a large number of short, well digested and easily searchable articles covering all aspects of value based management.

Organizations serve a purpose. They exist to deliver certain value(s). Organizations also use a tremendous amount of time, effort, investments, assets and resources. So it makes perfect sense to ensure, manage, measure, monitor, encourage and support that maximum value is realized. This is what Value Based Management is all about.

Value chains - theory and practice resources

The value chain describes the full range of activities that firms and workers do to bring a product from its conception to its end use and beyond. This includes activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support to the final consumer. The activities that comprise a value chain can be contained within a single firm or divided among different firms. Value chain activities can produce goods or services, and can be contained within a single geographical location or spread over wider areas.

The competitiveness of firms not only depends on the functioning of suppliers and buyers within a cluster, but also and often most importantly, on the entire chain at the national and global level. The value chain approach helps to identify all the enterprises that contribute to the production of a good or service within and beyond a cluster and shows which actions are needed to support these enterprises.

Hakikazi Catalyst, REPOA, TGNP (2007)

Follow the Money - a resource book for trainers on public expenditure tracking in Tanzania

Public Expenditure Tracking (PET) involves 'following the money' from where it is given out by central government authorities, passes through local government and moves on to end users such as people in schools and clinics

This 83 page manual provides a tool kit of different ways in which PET can be carried out. It assumes that (a) you have a basic knowledge of budgets and how they work, and that (b) you are interested in promoting greater transparency and accountability in how government budgets work. As of late June 2007 over 600 people have been trained using the manual

Updated versions - English 2.8Mb pdf file   Kiswahili  1.8Mb pdf file

Internet Center for Management and Business Administration

ICMBA's mission is to provide quality business knowledge resources to a geographically dispersed audience via the Internet. Via this web site, ICMBA publishes articles covering a range of topics in the various subjects of business administration. Over time, the articles will cover both basic and advanced topics, and include frameworks and theories that are useful for solving the more challenging problems of business administration.

Pact Resources.

Pact is committed to sharing with the development community the best of our field-produced training materials, handbooks, tools and guides. Often, when we start up a new project, we wish someone would put in our hands the best practical, field-tested materials. Instead we often find ourselves recreating the wheel. We hope the resources we present here will shorten your search while enabling you to build on the experience we have had.

Human Rights Tools

Providing human rights professionals with easy access to the best online resources.

This site is primarily aimed at human rights activists - persons monitoring the respect of human rights and advocating for positive change. Persons who are passionate about quality human rights work, have a thirst to continually deepen their knowledge, and are looking for a collection of top reference material.
After several years of searching the internet, we gradually discovered and assembled a collection of human rights tools and resources of amazing quality - and all of them were offered by their developers to other human rights workers. Taken together, these tools constitute a formidable resource, and a wonderful example of sharing and collaboration.

A Ladder of Citizen Participation

This article is about power structures in society and how they interact. Specifically it is a guide to seeing who has power when important decisions are being made. It is quite old, but never-the-less of great value to anyone interested in issues of citizen participation. The concepts discussed in this article about 1960's America apply to any hierarchical society but are still mostly unknown, unacknowledged or ignored by many people around the world. Most distressing is that even people who have the job of representing citizens views seem largely unaware, or even dismissive of these principles. Many planners, architects, politicians, bosses, project leaders and power-holder still dress all variety of manipulations up as 'participation in the process', 'citizen consultation' and other shades of technobabble

The underlying issues are essentially the same - "nobodies" in several arenas are trying to become "somebodies" with enough power to make the target institutions responsive to their views, aspirations, and needs.

Shorter version at http://www.srds.co.uk/slrc/slrc003.htm 
Governance Resource Centre (GRC) of the UK Department for International Development (DFID)

The GRC Exchange is a new website sharing the latest information about governance in development.

The GRC and GRC Exchange are managed by a partnership between the International Development Department (IDD) of the School of Public Policy at the University of Birmingham, and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex. A Content Advisory Group drawn from experts at DFID, IDD and IDS underpins the quality of information produced, ensuring that content reflects the latest academic and practitioner thinking.

NABUUR.COM (Helpful Global Neighbours)

NABUUR.COM’s mission is to give communities in developing countries access to their global Neighbours via the Internet. And through these Neighbours to the huge reservoir of resources (knowledge, solutions, energy and money) that is available elsewhere.

NABUUR.COM brings communities in developing countries into direct contact with committed individuals worldwide who want to assist them. These virtual Neighbours can help by finding the resources needed by the community.

There are already two communities in Tanzania getting help

Rural Poverty Portal

Powered by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the rural poverty portal is a web site where rural poor people, policy-makers, donors, research institutes, non-governmental organizations and other development partners can share information about eradicating rural poverty.

On the Rural poverty portal you can:
bulletBrowse information by topic, region or country
bulletRead about what works in rural development projects and what doesn't
bulletListen to farmers, development practitioners and decision-makers as they explain the challenges of rural poverty eradication
bulletJoin an electronic community committed to making rural poverty history

Why a portal?
The goals of the portal are to position rural poverty as a global, regional and national priority, and to streamline the search for information on rural poverty by providing access to millions of links from a single entry point.


Mind Tools

More than 100 essential life, career training and management training skills, freely available and outlined in easy to understand language. These skills are supported by simple examples and exercises that expand and reinforce your understanding.

Topics include: Time Management, Leadership Skills, Stress Management, Information Skills, Practical Creativity, Problem Solving, Decision Making, Project Planning & Management, Communication Skills; Memory Improvement.

The Community Planning Website
helping people shape their cities, towns and villages in any part of the world

This website provides an overview of methods of community planning. It is aimed at everyone concerned with the built environment. Jargon is avoided and material is presented in a universally applicable, how-to-do-it style. Whether you are a resident wanting to improve the place where you live, a policy maker interested in improving general practice, or a development professional working on a specific project, you should quickly be able to find what you need.

Civil Society Budgeting Toolkit: Part 1

This toolkit provides guidelines on how to go about developing and monitoring a budget. It will help you with an overall organisational budget as well as with a budget for a specific project. The toolkit includes tools for estimating costs as well as tips for ensuring that your budgets meet the needs of your project or organisation.

For more information, visit www.civicus.org/new/media/Budgeting.doc 
Successful Communication: A Toolkit for Researchers and Civil Society Organisations
Overseas Development Institute

This handbook is geared towards the needs of researchers and practitioners in civil society organisations, including development NGOs, research institutes, think tanks and universities. It addresses the questions of how researchers and civil society practitioners can best communicate evidence to inform or influence policy, achieve their stated objectives, or simply to make their knowledge accessible and understandable to a wider audience.

For more information and to download the toolkit, visit

UK - Economic and Social Research Council

Communications Toolkit - We hope this online resource gives you everything you need to communicate your research effectively and to achieve the maximum impact for your work.

There are sections on Communications Strategy, Media Relations, Public Affairs, Websites, Branding, Events, Publicity Material


The NGO Manager's Bookshelf

There are two types of management books: (a) the ones that look impressive in the bookstore but are actually so theoretical and boring that they end up picking up dust on our bookshelves; (b) the ones that we find to be so practical and useful that we reach for them frequently in our daily work.

As far as we are concerned, all the books in our list belong to the second category. We hope you will also find them inspiring!


Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA)

The PSIA E-learning Course provides fundamental PSIA training in three modules (A free online course - from the World Bank)



The purpose of this site is to make resources available, free, to NGOs working in the development or humanitarian fields. We make or find manuals that can help NGOs build skills, and suggest other websites with good resources. We particularly welcome those working alone or in a national NGO in Africa, Asia, South America and the ex-USSR.


Free Management Library

Complete, highly integrated library for nonprofits and for-profits. 75 popular categories of topics (675 topics)


Eldis Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Guide
- Methods, Tools and Manuals

A range of guidelines and manuals exist for aiding development practitioners in carrying out Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. Some guidelines are widely applicable whilst others are relevant to specific sectors, to use by different actors, or to various aspects of either monitoring or evaluation. There are a number of broadly relevant manuals, mainly developed by the large donor agencies for use by their staff and partners.


Policy Power Tools (from IIED)

The Power Tools initiative set out to develop, test and circulate existing and new tools to bridge some of the key gaps in policy processes and content. These policy tools – tips, tactics and approaches – are designed to provide some practical help to people working to improve the policies and institutions that govern access to and use of natural resources.


Capacity building for CSOs

Some choice web links from Fahamu

CARE (2001) Advocacy tools and guidelines: promoting policy change

This manual is CARE international's training guide designed to familiarize program managers with key advocacy concepts and techniques. The paper looks at the ways to contextualise policies, or the lack of them, in order to develop the most appropriate strategies to influence policy decision-makers. It recognises the frequent need to incorporate advocacy into projects in order to tackle the root causes of problems faced by communities.

Graham Boyd (2005) Organisational mechanisms that best serve the poor (42 pages - 284Kb pdf file) (As an IIED power tool)

This paper seeks to sharpen understanding on how poor and marginalised groups can address the forces that restrain their self-development through the creation of their own democratic economic organisations. Critical factors blocking pro-poor development are examined such as elite power, modes of living and other dependent-dominant relationships which inhibit the poor from pursuing organised actions to change their life situation. In seeking ways of overcoming these factors the paper analyses the need to provide some form of catalytic support to stimulate the poor to create informal and formal organisations under their ownership and control.

An examination of ‘official’ development policy that both explicitly and implicitly seeks to promote investor-controlled enterprise as the dominant business ownership model suggests that this approach is unlikely to bring lasting changes which will directly benefit the poor. “Because well functioning markets are designed to bypass such people.” (Sachs, 2005) Market interventions by pro-poor development partners needs to become more balanced. In particular they need to promote and support on an equal basis appropriate forms of member-controlled enterprise. It is through this self-organising approach that the poor obtain significant power to control their asset-base, promote economic democracy and retain economic surpluses.

The paper details a range of different forms – association, trust, partnership, company and cooperative - which can be used to achieve these objectives. Two charts provide details of key features such as legal incorporation, governing instruments, ownership, regulation, asset and financial controls, meetings, management structures and winding-up. Guidance is provided as to which legal forms, if any, would be most appropriate to ensure self-organised enterprises remain controlled by the poor and therefore best serve their interests.

ILO (2005) Decent Work and Poverty Reduction Strategies - A reference manual for ILO staff and constituents

(179 pages - 1971Kb pdf file)

This Manual draws on the practical experience gained through support to PRSPs in 15 countries from 2000 to 2005.

bulletSection one provides an historical and conceptual overview of PRSs. It also explains the linkages between PRSs and the Millennium Development Goals.
bulletSection two explains the structure and processes of formulating PRSs and indicates the key linkages and areas of influence for the Decent Work Agenda.
bulletSection three highlights the importance of national budgets and finance, and their implications for ILO and constituents.
bulletThis national context is also highlighted in Section four which describes implementation and review processes.
bulletSection five highlights the growing need for evidence-based policy formulation in PRSs based on poverty monitoring systems. The role of qualitative and quantitative data, and the need to strengthen research and analysis to inform policy are highlighted.
bulletSection six provides a flavour of initial experience and issues emerging in the revision phase of PRSs.
The International Budget Project builds Civil Society budget capacity, enhances participation, and combats poverty
Demystifying the Budget Process in Tanzania - a seminar to promote civil society advocacy: December 2004: Organised by Tanzania Natural Resource Forum and facilitated by Hakikazi Catalyst

Report as 278Kb doc, or 98Kb pdf

Advocacy and Lobbying Skills - a set of 7 worksheets

Dialogue for Change - outputs from an interactive colloquium in August 2002 which dealt with Popularising Policy and Influencing Change through Action Research, Advocacy and Creative Communication.

Strategic Proactive Networking (SPANNING) - briefing notes from the Caledonia Centre for Social Development
A staff training programme for Community Economic Development - a set of handouts from the Banffshire Partnership
Training of Trainers - a workshop programme from Seafield Research and Development Services

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